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Available tests for Constitutional Law — $36/each

general/Constitutional Law

9th Circuit has chance to vindicate First Amendment

Jul. 28, 2017

Does it violate the First Amendment for the state of California to force merchants who charge more to customers paying with credit cards to refer to that price difference as a “cash discount” rather than a “credit-card surcharge”? The 9th Circuit will consider this on August 17.

general/Constitutional Law

<i>Batson</i> is back

Jun. 9, 2017
By Laura Kelly, Mai Linh Spencer

For only the second time in over 25 years, the California Supreme Court has found that a peremptory challenge violated the constitutional prohibition against racial discrimination in jury selection.


general/Constitutional Law

Courts diverge on commercial speech

Jun. 1, 2017
By Richard A. Samp

Recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions have granted ever-increasing First Amendment protection to commercial speakers. The 9th Circuit, however, seems to be moving in the opposite direction.

general/Constitutional Law

Public Employees and Free Speech: An Update

Apr. 7, 2017

When a public employee speaks up, does the First Amendment provide protection? It depends. By Richard Whitmore and David Urban


general/Constitutional Law

Searching a probationer's electronic devices

Mar. 17, 2017
By Alison M. Tucher

Under what circumstances do the Constitution and case law allow warrantless searches of electronic devices owned by probationers or parolees?

general/Constitutional Law

Right to privacy and civil discovery

Dec. 19, 2016
By Patricia M. Lucas, Gary Nadler

Learn about the source of the right to privacy, the test for determining when discovery may be curtailed due to the right, and specific areas covered by the right.


general/Constitutional Law

Bruton rule in a post-Crawford world

Mar. 23, 2015
By Thomas Rubinson

Acquaint yourself with limits to admission of a defendant's statements in multiple defendant trials, and to explore redaction as a way to permit statements to be admitted in a joint trial.

general/Constitutional Law

When you can rely on anonymous tips

Nov. 24, 2014
By Michael J. Raphael

When may an anonymous tip provide the basis for reasonable suspicion to allow a police officer to stop and briefly detain an individual?


general/Constitutional Law

Search and seizure basics, Part 3

Sep. 29, 2014
By Elia V. Pirozzi

The objective of this article and self-study test is to review the principles and recent case authority concerning the Fourth Amendment's exclusionary rule.

general/Constitutional Law

Search and seizure basics, Part 2

Aug. 25, 2014
By Elia V. Pirozzi

The objective of this article and self-study test is to review the principles and recent case authority concerning the Fourth Amendment's exclusionary rule.